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France leads the world in total wine consumption. There are so many French people consuming this product that many of them consider wine a food. I believe that the French people have been deceived by the alcohol lobbyists, who will do anything to legitimize the use of this intoxicant, and who also attempt to market wine as a “sophisticated” and “romantic” beverage merely for the lobbyists' own profit. But of course, the cold, hard facts reveal another side to the romance. France, like America, has a major problem with alcohol-related deaths. According to French journalist Herve Chabalier, in his report to French health minister Xavier Bertrand entitled “Alcoholism–The Simple Truth,” alcohol is directly responsible for 23,000 deaths a year in France, with an average of five French people dying every day in an accident linked to alcohol. The health care system is incapable of dealing with so many people dependent on alcohol. One might question how this could be, when wine enjoys the reputation of being an innocent and intellectually seductive beverage. But the fact is that sip for sip, wine has over three times the alcohol content of beer. Those who drink wine may be regarded as more sophisticated than those who drink beer, yet they both consume about the same amount of alcohol. And of course, most alcoholics deny their addiction and say they drink for the robust flavor of their favorite fermented beverage. Meanwhile, France is in a state of economic collapse, and so is Nevada City. It's time to sober up gang; the money has just about run out.
Now, let's get a little closer picture of the problem and how it relates to our small community of Nevada City. You know how I like to relate the macro to the micro for a more in-depth and personal comparison. As I have mentioned earlier, there now exist twenty-six alcohol-serving establishments within two city blocks of the very ground I am standing on, here at City Hall, with more on the way. I already consider this to be a huge alcohol density problem (the technical term for “too many places to get alcohol”). This count does not include the outer regions of the city, where other alcohol outlets exist, including The Chevron Station, SPD, The Republic Brewery, California Organics, and the Bring Your Own Bottle wine shop, which is financially overseen by our very own honorable city councilwoman Sally Harris. This is a prime example of a city official involved in the sale of intoxicants. This is not a new problem, for this city was founded on alcohol-dependent miners who left evidence of their addiction in the heaps of glass alcohol bottles buried in most downtown Nevada City backyards. You may see some of them displayed in the downtown shops. So, I am asking the Police Chief, city manager, and city council why they are not placing more restrictions on alcohol permits and the people they serve, or citing prominent members within our community (you know the ones you turn your back on) for alcohol abuse.For example, are you aware of how many Nevada City business owners and city officials have their own alcohol dependent issues? Have you ever considered being more discerning in your own approval process? Is there anybody at this table that does not drink alcohol? You should know the statistics on how many people have been harmed by alcohol in our community. Where are your priorities? You now seem to be currently consumed with outside smokers, but how many people have died of outdoor secondhand smoke lately, as opposed to those killed or injured in alcohol-related accidents or violence?
Now, as the Police chief, city manager,and other city officials—along with the local business owners—walk hand-in-hand to continue their so-called cleanup of downtown Nevada City, we will soon have a much clearer picture of the obvious problem. We will eventually discover that we can't always blame others for the collapse of our own endeavors, and such is the case in the downtown business sector of Nevada City. Once the city officials and business owners have run all the homeless and other “unwanted people” out of town, the main problem will still remain, for the main problem is within the city's structure. The question I pose to my city mothers, fathers, officials and business owners is this: “When are you going to cleanup your own backyard?” For example, poor decisions by city officials have left us with twenty-six alcohol-selling establishments within two blocks of the very ground I am standing on. This is an atrocity, for it is killing our city; yet you seem oblivious to the destructiveness of your policies, and aware only of the revenues to be gained from alcohol sales. It doesn't take a rocket scientist to understand that the more alcohol-serving establishments there are, the higher the rates of underage drinking, crime, violence, DUIs, accidents, and continued poor decision-making. Plenty of scholarly studies exist on this topic, which is known as “Community alcohol outlet density problems.”Given this evidence, one has to wonder whether our city officials have sold out to the alcohol lobbyists, do not understand scientific studies, or—possibly—are in denial of their own dependence on alcohol. If that last is the case, I certainly have sympathy for their condition; in response, I am suggesting mandatory testing of all city officials for substance abuse until the problem is resolved. I am also suggesting daily 12-step meetings be available in the downtown area, sponsored by experienced people who are clean and sober.
Thomas James Streicher, Ph.D.
The Initial Problem: Sometimes the hopelessly passive role of conformity can feel so rewarding. Just to “fit in” - to dress, act, and do things the way other people do - can create feelings of security for some. For example, in our childhood we looked up to mommy and daddy for the answers in our life. We then continued to allow supposedly older, wiser, and more enlightened people to guide our decision making, which seemed to make good sense. We looked to school teachers, doctors, scientists, religious figures, politicians, and other high profile figures who seemed convincing. But most of us ended up paying a high price for continually going outside ourselves for the answers. This pattern is akin to plucking out our own eyes to blind us from the truth. We can grow to be our own powerhouse with the ability to change, or we can rely on others to decide our future for us. We can create our own reality. What reality will you choose?
The Bigger Problem: “Divide and conquer” is a strategy for gaining and maintaining power by breaking up smaller groups of power and preventing them from connecting with others who are questioning the consensus reality of those who hold the power. This strategy has been used throughout history, as, for example, by the United States government to conquer the Natives of this country. Let’s think for a moment about how we are being divided and conquered right now. The powers at hand are not focusing on our commonalities or interconnectedness; instead, they have been dividing us into many different categories such as, young or old, male or female, White or of Color, Democrat or Republican, Christian or atheist, rich or poor, etc. We are continually being pressured by political, military, and economic powers to divide up into smaller segments to reduce and prevent possible alliances that could challenge the ruling class. Authorities strive to protect their power by attacking and ridiculing those who threaten their rule. For those who are awake enough to see beyond the propaganda, the divide and conquer strategy is on full display.
Micro of the Macro Problem: On a micro level, allow me to bring this concept closer to home by sharing my subjective experience living and working as an advocate for the homeless in Nevada City. My work started with the creation of Divine Spark over 10 years ago, when I committed to four trips a year to the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation to help provide essential needs and services to the Native Americans. At that time, Divine Spark was predominantly financed by the Nevada City downtown businesses that were supporting the mission and efforts to support those in need in South Dakota. But that funding started to dry up five years ago, as Divine Spark became more involved with the local homeless population. As of today, Divine Spark no longer receives any funding from the Nevada City downtown businesses. Those people who generously had been supporting the poor of Nevada City through Divine Spark ceased their support. Divine Spark sought financial assistance from outside the area. In Nevada City, businesses make up the downtown area and they voiced concern that their profits may be effected by the presence of homeless people. The city relies on the revenues which the businesses generate and so they supported the businesses view. There you have it: divided and conquered, a matter of economics combined with political and police control. Is the almighty dollar always more important than a human life?
Possible Solution to the Problem: Being a very tenacious organization, Divine Spark never gives up fighting for those in need, or the poor and hungry of our community. You are probably asking yourself how much can Divine Spark do if the city continues to block avenues to feed and comfort the needy? The answer is simple for me: I go deeper inside for the answers and concretize new ideas into reality, so that a new paradigm and vision of our community will be allowed to prevail. The divide and conquer strategy might work well on some people, but it’s not going to be successful in our community with the Divine Spark free meal program. Divine Spark will continue to carry out it’s mission of service to poor and in-need people, however Divine Spark needs all our help. I invite you to encourage a free daily meal program somewhere within the Nevada City limits. If you know of a place that we could rent for an hour a day to help feed our local people needing assistance, please contact us. Divine Spark has been kept alive by individual contributions and generosity and has the revenues to rent a place where the hungry can access meals. Let’s be an exemplar of how our love, compassion, empathy, and courage have united us so as to eliminate hunger in our community. I look forward to communicating with you.
Thomas James Streicher, Ph.D.
Drug sales in downtown Nevada City are reaching epidemic proportions. While the Nevada City officials keep a keen eye out for what they consider to be the most dangerous drugs in our area, more alcohol is being sold than ever before, obviously the drug of choice in this community. But for some reason, nobody dares mention that alcohol claims more lives and inspires more arrests than all other drugs combined, and remains the mostly widely abused substance in Nevada City and our Nation. The cold hard fact is that, within two city blocks from this very ground -- City Hall -- where I am standing, there are at least 25 establishments selling alcohol. Furthermore, while most of the attention seems to be on such other drugs as marijuana, heroin, cocaine, and the like, the damaging effects of these drugs pale in comparison to those caused by alcohol, the number-one killer drug in our community and country. Even most of our city officials seem to be in denial of these facts, as they continue to promote their own personal usage and sale of the potential poison. It’s as though the “Spirit of Alcohol ” holds carte blanche in town, as it mingles among our most prominent citizens with full discretionary powers. It turns out that, in Latin, "alcohol" is “spiritus ” or “spirits, ” and we often use that same word to describe it. It is no wonder why the bartender may ask you to “name your poison. ” It all comes down to spirit against spirit, or the spirit of alcohol against the spirit of the person involved with it. The alcohol spirit lets your spirit know it will give you something, but also wants something in exchange, like your spirit. Alcoholism can be considered a state of possession.
For a bigger picture of this atrocity, imagine a pie chart concerning problems with drugs. Then visualize over 50% of the pie is eaten up by consumers of alcohol. Now, if you are still thinking that "denial" is some river in Egypt, let us take a closer look, for ignorance can be bliss. For example, just the other day I asked a Nevada City official what his drug of choice is and he answered that he doesn’t take drugs. Then I questioned him again, asking if he drank alcoholic beverages, and he said “yes. ” You see, the spirit of alcohol can be, no doubt, a ruthless, cunning, and baffling menace to society. It is the number one drug and drug problem in our community and country. There is no family in America that has not been in some way affected by alcoholism, either in the form of an alcoholic loved one or of co-dependency. Of course, this is not a new problem, and our country has had many battles with the spirit of alcoholism through the ages. You might remember the period of “Prohibition, ” when there were so many problems with alcohol and its results that the government felt compelled to ban it from legal distribution. This movement was mostly led by zealots in government who felt that morality and behavior could be changed by edit. Of course, they were wrong. The use of alcohol or any other drug is certainly a matter of personal choice. In my opinion, people should be allowed to choose their own drug or poison. I believe they should be punished only if their choice hurts someone else, such as by causing automobile accidents and domestic violence where others are injured, and we certainly have had our share of those here.
To be perfectly clear, I am not in favor of Prohibition, which I think caused more problems than it solved. But I do question our Nevada City mothers and fathers regarding what kind of family they would raise here, when alcohol sales could be topping the list of consumed beverages here soon. With that consumption comes more crime, more accidents, more DUIs, more violence, and more deaths. I see no education concerning the magnitude of this problem taking place anywhere in the city. What kind of message is our local government displaying? I suggest we be more discerning about where we want alcohol served and start a public program of creating greater awareness followed by action to prevent a total catastrophe. It could start with you and me being truthful about our own experiences regarding alcohol use and abuse, for instance parents could educate their children about use and abuse of alcohol and the fact that it is a drug. Now is the time to discuss that there is an elephant standing in the living room, and to resolve the obvious problem instead of pretending that it dose not exist. Maybe then we can offer our children more than a drunken view of how our world functions. Now, that’s the spirit were looking for!
Thomas James Streicher, Ph.D.
Nevada City Councilman Robert Bergman initially attracted many voters with his proposed campaign to clean up Calanan Park. Mr. Bergman also made it perfectly clear that he no longer wanted me to leave food for the hungry in the park. Now the park usually sits void of warm-blooded people, but still full of cold mechanical junk left over from the devastating Gold Mining era. Moreover, the entire Nevada City Council put an end to the free meal program for the hungry poor people of our community. This may be considered a clean sweep, but to some people it was just another disguise for what can be termed the economic cleansing of Nevada City. I use this term to refer to the methods used by government or the dominant/privileged class to make unwanted, undesirable people get up and move away from their geographic area, and I'm not talking only poor people. Take a look around: the cleansing has begun.
First of all, be aware that this is not a new tactic, and our small town is a good example of what's going on in the bigger context of our nation. Throughout history dominant groups have tried to take control of their territory by forcing out unwanted “others.” It can be done through using the police force or intimidation, shaming techniques, higher property assessments, higher costs for food and shelter, or even the best example is higher costs for water. You might remember all those new downtown Nevada City water meters that were installed that resulted in a hefty rate increase. Yes, this is economic cleansing in action.
I'm not talking only about poor people here. Let's consider the Gypsies for a moment, as their fate is similar to that of our local unwanted people. The Gypsies live a nomadic lifestyle, involving no permanent residence. Many struggle to earn enough money to buy food. People are distrustful of Gypsies simply because they have no permanent address. They move around a lot, which can bring fear to a society where being settled reigns superior to the nomadic culture. Is no compromise possible? A quick and easy answer could come from the original peoples of this country, the nomadic Native Americans, who were eventually forced to live on reservations. Many of the Native Americans such as the Sioux were nomadic tribes that flourished as they followed the immense buffalo herds around our great nation. American history has pointed out that, when a group becomes marginalized, the perceived solution tends to be integration. But what if the unwanted members of society do not want to become part of the dominant culture? Forced integration? Starvation? Death? Maybe the Nevada City Council should open a reservation on the outskirts of town for all its marginalized citizens!
But now, on a more realistic note, let's see if we can find the courage just to go out and investigate what happened to that nice little family that used to live next door, you know, where the vacant and “foreclosed” sign was posted. This is economic cleansing in action also, where low-income families are being forced out of their neighborhoods and literally into the streets. You see, folks, this is not only about the poor; it's about the 99 percent, people like you and me, who are also feeling the pinch. It's hard to accept this current economic dilemma, as many people face having no money, no jobs, no house, no food.
Now, as we look up and down Broad, Commercial, Spring, and Union streets, we see more and more vacant buildings and shops. One might remark that this has to do with the current bleak economic downturn, while others are convinced that economic cleansing is to blame; meanwhile, landlords wait for the wealthy to rent, buy, or lease their overpriced shops. One thing for sure is that the people with all the money will do what they do best, and that's make more money. even if it is at the expense of the human rights of all the rest of us.
Thomas James Streicher, Ph.D.
“What happened to downtown Nevada City? It feels like a ghost town,” I heard a tourist exclaim over the weekend, as he commented on the 21 vacancies and other postings of businesses leaving Nevada City. Of course, many of the local residents well know the bleak, tainted history that has plagued the quaint little town nestled in the Sierra foothills since its acclaimed glory days during the California Gold Rush period; the dark facts, however, you will not acquire at the local Chamber of Commerce. A few concerned citizens like myself had requested that a community healing be initiated to increase awareness of and begin recovery from the negative effects of unresolved intergenerational trauma, chronic alcoholism, greed, and exploitation that have occurred here over the past 200 years, starting with the genocide of the original inhabitants. Many of these facts were depicted in local plays during the 1850s such as Alonzo Delano's “A Live Woman in the Mines,” or depicted in more recent Native American artwork such as Harry Fonseca's “Gold and Genocide” series, where Fonseca utilized traces of red in his paintings to represent the blood of Native Americans shed by the gold seekers. This issue was presented to the Nevada City Council meeting in 2008, but many scoffed at the idea. These same people, still scoffing, have continued to defend their self-righteous behavior along with generations of greed, exploitation, genocide, White supremacy, rape, and murder.
The problem is clear. It doesn't take a rocket scientist to understand what the “good ole boys” of Nevada City want to represent their town. Just exit from the main Nevada City off-ramp called Broad Street, turn left, and begin your excursion up the street into the entry to the downtown area. Your first impressions will soon intersect with your first reminder of the exploitation that took place here, as you stare down the barrel of a humungous water cannon and other Gold Rush implements that devastated the natural landscape. These implements are so special to the good ole boys that they had to appropriate the only downtown park to store and display all this old junk. I say “junk,” because to many concerned citizens they are reminders of greed, exploitation, and environmental devastation that could just as well be stored somewhere else. These so-called special tools helped the miners take everything they needed from the natural environment in order to try to get rich quick before heading back to their homes, some of which were across the nation and even in other countries.
Many tourists become curious and start asking questions about what happened here, before all these saloons, liquor stores, restaurants, shops, and hotels were constructed and restored. This is a good question without an easy answer. I usually reply, “How much do you really want to know?” If they are still interested, I start talking about what happened to the original Native American inhabitants. I explain how there used to be about 2,000 Natives living here before life got crazy during the 1850s, when Nevada City developed into a Gold Rush town. Most of the Natives were pushed off their land, driven out, or killed. I explain that these negative behaviors have been left unresolved, leaving a trail and legacy of intergenerational trauma and further inhumane treatment of marginalized citizens, just look at how our below poverty and homeless people are being treated. So now the rest of us sit breathing in the poison that has infected our town, alongside the Grim Reaper who has arrived to take his toll. Reminding us that not all that glitters, is gold.
Thomas James Streicher, Ph.D.
Genocide has a familiar taste to the palate of many Americans. Often regarded as the “Dark side” or “Shadow” of one's personality, this evil appears in many guises. Whether we like it or not, everyone seems to own one of these evil “shadows,” and some people call it meeting their devils. This so-called dark side of human nature can be defined as the intention to do harm to another individual. But the shadow is not only an individual problem. Groups, communities, cities, and countries can manifest a collective shadow that may lead to dangerous actions such as scapegoating, discrimination, racist attacks, and even the potential destruction and elimination of our own species, as in war.
We can try to run from the fact that America was built on the genocide or destruction of the Native American peoples and cultures. For example, we can pretend we don't know that less than 200 years ago California was paying a bounty for Native American scalps. But at the same time we seem to be running out of answers to our present-day problems in America and the world. We certainly have imagined a better life, and many have followed allegedly “enlightened” gurus, priests, and politicians who tell us exactly what we want to hear, although they don't seem to be able to walk their own talk. One does not become enlightened by imagining figures of light, but by accepting and making the darkness an integral part of oneself. We all have a dark side, but many don't want to see it.
America has become a stage for this collective shadow. The 2010 August report from the National Coalition for the Homeless stated: “Violent, often fatal, attacks on homeless Americans now outnumber all other categories of hate crimes combined.” In Redding, California, three boys beat a homeless man to death with metal pipes and baseball bats, thereby reminding us that hate, prejudice, and racism are taught at home by parents who pass these attitudes on to their children. The most common victim of hate crimes against the homeless is alleged to be a middle-aged man between 40 and 60 years of age.
If this is too difficult to imagine, let's bring it closer to home and look inside our own micro community. There are reported hate crimes against the homeless happening right here in our very own Nevada City. As you may know, I have been an advocate for the local homeless population for over five years. Through these years I have received many reports from the homeless concerning the seizure and disposal of their personal property, along with news of harassment and physical violence perpetrated against them by local authorities. While these crimes are being investigated, we now also have the death of local citizen William “Billy” Kelly, which is under investigation. There is a lot to be concerned about.
Nevada City is mostly a community of white, Christian, middle-class folk. And yet, was Jesus not a homeless person? If you are still not satisfied that there is a widespread dislike for homeless people, just go into our local newspaper web site, “The Union,” and click on “homeless” or on my last name “Streicher,” and read all the insulting, negative comments (if still available). You may be appalled by the apathy concerning the meek and poor who the Bible states will someday inherit the Earth. You could have also attended the Nevada City Council meetings on homeless issues and gotten a good taste of what the dark side can look like in public, at the same time that the free meal program for the homeless was shut down (re-runs available on TV). If you are really brave, put on your backpack and spend a few nights trying to survive under the local bridges. I once tried sleeping in my car in a church parking lot to get a feel for being homeless, but I was rudely awakened at 1:00 a.m. by a policeman holding a glaring flashlight in my eyes. No at all friendly, he told me to “get up and out.” I have no criminal record (which could be verified by my license plate), and I was not causing a disturbance.
To some fanatical Muslims, America is the great Satan. To radical Nazi adherents, the Jews are thought of as better dead than alive. To certain devout Christian monks, shamans are considered in league with the devil. To American members of the Ku Klux Klan, Blacks are depicted as subhuman. And, now it seems that some residents of Nevada City are characterizing the homeless in a similarly despicable manner.
Consider this: Years ago I recall visiting a famous zoo in the heartland of America in which one of the cages featured a large mirror for people to look at themselves. Underneath the mirror was a warning that read: “The Most Dangerous Animal on Earth.” The wild savage in us is very much alive—just caged most of the time. A goal of meeting the shadow is to develop an ongoing relationship with it. We may think that the shadow contains only darkness and evil, but, as Carl Jung has stated, its essence is “pure gold,” because it allows us finally to acknowledge those dark parts of ourselves and bring them into consciousness. Maybe this is what the “Gold Country” is all about. I have always enjoyed this quote by Lee Salk, “When it gets dark enough, you can see the stars.” When I glance at the dark evening sky over Nevada City, I see a lot of stars.
Thomas J. Streicher, Ph.D.
Nevada City mayor Robert Bergman attracted many voters with his proposed clean-up of Callahan Park campaign. Mr. Bergman also made it perfectly clear that he no longer wanted me to leave food for the homeless in the park. Moreover, the entire Nevada City Council unanimously voted to end the free meal program for the in-need poor people of our community. This may be considered a clean sweep. But to some people, it was just another disguise for what can be considered to be the attempted economic cleansing of Nevada City. I use this term to refer to the methods used by government or the dominant majority to make unwanted poor people get up and move away from their geographic area. The Nevada City Police Chief has even suggested that we round up all the homeless people and drop them off in the desert somewhere. The cleansing has begun.
This is not a new tactic, and our small town is just a micro example of what's going on in the bigger picture of our nation. Throughout history dominant groups have tried to take control of their territory by forcing out unwanted “others.” It could be done through police force or intimidation, higher property assessments, higher costs for food and shelter, or higher costs for water. Remember all those new downtown Nevada City water meters that were installed recently? Along with those new meters came a hefty rate hike.
Consider the Gypsies, whose fate is similar to that of our local homeless or other unwanted poor people. The Gypsies live a similar lifestyle, involving no permanent residence. Many struggle to live and earn money to buy food. People are distrustful of Gypsies simply because they live a nomadic lifestyle. They move around a lot, which can bring fear to a society where being settled reigns superior over the nomadic culture. Is no compromise possible? A quick and easy answer could come from the original peoples of this country, the nomadic Native Americans, who were eventually forced to live on reservations. Many of the Native Americans such as the Sioux were nomadic tribes that flourished as they followed the buffalo herds around our great nation. American history has pointed out that, when a group becomes marginalized, the perceived solution tends to be integration. But what if the unwanted members of society don't want to become part of the dominant culture? Forced integration? Starvation? Death?
Divine Spark, Inc. is currently serving more than 100 local homeless people, and the numbers are growing. If you can find the courage, go out and investigate what happened to that nice little family that use to live next door---you know, where the vacant and “foreclosed” sign is currently posted. This is economic cleansing in action, where low-income families are being forced out of their neighborhoods and into the street. It's hard to accept our current economic crises, isn't it?
There is much that you can do, and you don't need to have a Ph.D. to do it. Simply start by opening-up your own hearts and pocket books. I am not seeking your donation. I am asking you to go directly to the people who need help in your community and give them a sandwich if they're hungry, or offer a ride if you see them walking. Be a kind and gentle listener, and invite them to tell their stories of how they got to where they are now. We really are all connected, and you will see that, by opening your heart and giving more, you will receive much more in return.
Thomas J. Streicher, Ph.D.
The great American love affair with capitalism has caused an overemphasis on material possessions. Now, too many Americans are losing their houses, cars, and jobs to what could be considered the great shift. As you know, shift happens. We all know it, and most of us feel it. So what can we do about it? We can always pretend that change is not really happening, and stick our heads in the sand like an ostrich. But we will pay a price for that denial, which comes with big mistakes resulting from not seeing what is actually there. This is the case with inattentional blindness, where people actually fail to see what is beyond their focus of attention. For example, lifeguards are so conditioned to observe people struggling on the surface of the water that they sometimes do not see people lying unconscious on the bottom of the pool. Are you struggling right now, or could you already be suffering, from inattentional blindness?
If you are sleeping through all this, I hope you will be waking up soon, because we need all the help we can get. As history has a tendency to repeat itself, I compare these days to the days of old. For example, you might recall reading how the early natives of the Americas did not know what they were seeing when they first observed the huge European warships approaching their land mass. Some of these gigantic European ships, such as the Spanish galleon, weighed 400 tons, were equipped with 40 cannons, reached three stories in height, and carried up to 12 horses, which were also alien to the natives. For many of them, the huge ships may have been an unimaginable sight, so unimaginable that they might have appeared as a moving mountain, a sea serpent, or maybe nothing comprehensible at all, as these people were familiar only with dugout canoes at the time.
Our attachment to capitalism and materialism has made us blind, as if we covered our eyes so we can't see the truth. We are being conquered, and we just don't see it. We don't see it because we are like rats on a sinking ship, scurrying to stay alive while trying to make sense of it all. The stress and denial are running rampant. You might remember denial if at one time you had the experience of refusing to acknowledge an addiction, a partner's infidelity, or a terminal illness. If that's not enough, we are continually being bamboozled by political leaders who can't stop spending our money and making poor decisions with it. Oh, by the way, who gave them permission to do so? Because of their negligence and irresponsibility, our country is facing financial Armageddon. We seem to be in denial of it, and the ship is sinking quickly. One may prefer to call this “Death by Debt,” as many still focus on gaining more material possessions even while facing financial disaster. Now would be a good time for all of us to take back our personal power instead of giving it away to poor leadership. If we don't wake up soon, we could become prime targets for what's to come.
Before we know it, we could be facing another type of inattentional blindness that some have already noticed and others have not. Let's just suppose for a moment that there is other intelligent life in the universe. Like my former example of how lots of indigenous people did not recognize the huge ships coming in to their land mass, how many people would actually “see” galactic spaceships the size of football fields lurking in the sky behind a pillar of clouds? Or how about the smaller cigar-shaped ones that could fly into your living room while you are hypnotized watching the best of “Oprah”? Is this too unrealistic for you? Maybe it would have been 50 years ago, but by now there have been too many sightings of UFOs and reported contacts with extraterrestrial beings to be fully discounted. Even Vatican astronomers admit that extraterrestrial life is a valid area of investigation for the Catholic Church. We should remember that many scientific “facts” widely accepted in the past, such as the Earth being the center of the universe, were later proven to be false.
Let's take a moment to consider what might happen if the extraterrestrial origin of the UFOs should be confirmed. First of all, what this would mean for humanity would be unimaginable for most. We would have been discovered and colonized, and that would be enough to result in sheer worldwide panic, as we realized that our science and technology were useless to protect us. Our military and advanced weaponry would appear like cave people with clubs to such an advanced and superior scientific civilization. The new arrivals would probably be shocked by our habit of deliberately killing members of our own species along with every other living thing on this planet. Perhaps we can hope that they would be compassionate and try to help.
“There is nothing to fear, but fear itself” comes into my mind. Maybe we will surprise ourselves and become wiser by continuing to explore this area with an open mind. Or maybe we will need another wake-up call at a later date. Shall I set the alarm now?
Thomas J. Streicher, Ph.D.
Great stories have made billions. Most people tend to enjoy a good story once in a while, and there are some great ones out there. Although not necessarily based on facts, these great stories have even greater significance in people's lives, for they can give greater meaning to a seemingly meaningless world. For instance, let's consider the biblical story of Jesus Christ, which over 3 billion Christians believe to be authentic. Talk about the sale of a great story – try to beat that one! Sure sounds good, but based on facts? Or let's consider science and its story of how Earth and we humans got their start. You know, that one called the “Big Bang,” where all of a sudden out of absolute nothingness there was stuff, and then humans supposedly emerged from the organic soup cooking on the Earth's surface. Oh yeah, and how about the story that denied that rocks could fall from the sky, now called meteorites, or the one that insisted nothing could move faster than the speed of light. All these so-called facts have been proven false by loads of disconfirming evidence. For the grand finale and final discussion, let's talk about another great story for sale. You may have already read it, but it concerns how our government wants us to feel protected and safe within its walls of prevailing authority. If you didn't buy it, you might agree that it was just too much to pay for this fraud known as comfort, safety, and security. If you did buy it, maybe you can get a refund.
My question is, just how much disconfirming evidence does it take before people change their opinion, mind, or belief? Okay, I think you can see where I'm trying to go with this. Will we continue to be a desperate people who rely on feelings of comfort instead of hammering out the facts? I think our problem has been that we rely too much on comfort and security levels, and this distracts us from getting to know the deeper parts of ourselves. There are great stories like how the Declaration of Independence and Bill of Rights were written, but are the authorities truly paying attention? Like the temple priests of the past, they have protected their stories, and attacked and ridiculed others who tried to shatter their altars: believe me, I know this to be true from experience. Let's get even more specific and talk about the local government right here in Nevada City, in particular the issue of the violations of civil rights, particularly those of the homeless. As you may be aware, there are investigations going on right now concerning our governing authorities and the reported abuse of the homeless that might help us understand what kind of story we bought into. Are you ready for a shift in consciousness that will challenge the ruling authorities? If so, read on. The new story could begin here.
First off, it doesn't cost much money to buy into the greatest story ever sold. But you may have to sell your heart and soul in the process of initiation. If you just keep doing what you're told to do, things start to fall right into place. Before you know it, you will be condemning people who don't live up to your standards, such as those who are indigent, don't vote, don't believe in the Christian God, don't pay taxes, or don't look like, or live, or work the same way you do. If you want to get down to the real nitty-gritty, Nevada City is mainly a White, Christian town with White-Christian values that could mean you might be shunned or demonized for conflicting views and beliefs. I myself have experienced this. Now there are a lot of stories that go with those beliefs and behaviors, but let's try to stay on track by focusing on such local government issues as poverty, homelessness, and civil rights violations. We could also keep in mind how this micro example can be projected onto the macro condition of our nation as a whole.
As we focus on the depths of poverty, we can definitely see where our help is needed. You may remember seeing me on your T.V. as an advocate for our local homeless population at the Nevada City Council meetings, where I was continually challenged by local authorities. My work with poverty issues goes back over 10 years, when I started working on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, considered to be one of the poorest communities in our nation. What I am trying to say is that I do not get intimidated very easily by authority figures discrediting civil rights issues. On the contrary, I have challenged the local ruling authorities such as the City Manager and the entire City Council to step forward and be accountable for the alleged abuse of fellow Nevada City homeless citizens in regard to reported civil rights violations. But I was ignored, ridiculed, attacked, and punished for my attempts to question the ruling class and status quo. Of course, I was just getting started, although maybe the ruling authorities thought they were finished with me and the issues at hand. Now that the initial Grand Jury investigations are confirming some of my reports, you can hear a pin drop in front of City Hall. Could this mean that we have been bamboozled once again and the wool pulled over our eyes, so that we could seemingly bask in the sun of our own comfort and security? Yikes! What a mistake!
Thomas J. Streicher, Ph.D.
“You cannot create a statue by smashing the marble with a hammer, and you cannot by force of arms release the spirit or the soul of man” (Confucius). This is a most auspicious time in history. Clear signs that people around the world have an inexhaustible need to understand and deal with life on a deeper level. Mounting empirical evidence that a spiritual life correlates with improved health, happiness, and creativity has literally opened the door to the 21st century and to the world within us.
If we all have one thing in common, I would hope this would be our spirituality. It is my opinion that spirituality/religious concerns will need to be addressed as growing concerns of the client become more apparent and in order to serve the general public more effectively in the future. I believe we are not only human beings having an earthly experience, we are spiritual beings having a universal existence. As this statement came to me during a recent meditation, I became aware of the significance of how everything and everybody are somehow connected. This spiritual connection could be viewed as a connection to others that evolves a deep inner knowing of love and meaning in the universes.
My spiritual approach to guidance/counseling will be based upon spirituality and the realization of our connectiveness to all things throughout the universes and will integrate the concepts of universal, traditional, and multicultural approaches. My definition of culture will extend beyond relationships that have been previously restricted to other Human beings and to the earthly plane. This multicultural and transcendent approach to spiritual/transpersonal guidance will into our connections with all things including life on other planets.
This essay comes out of response to a controversial and important issues regarding the ineffectiveness of counseling/psychotherapy, especially talk therapy. I believe this ineffectiveness is rooted deep in the scientific adhesiveness to the unassailable laws of psychology that Abraham Maslow describes as “Often these have turned out to be no laws at all but only rules for living in a state of mild and chronic psychopathology and fearfulness, of stunting and crippling and immaturity which we don't notice because most others have this same disease that we have” (Maslow, 1968, p. 72). Understanding the neurotic nature of psychopathology has led to the development of explanations, scientific theories, and counseling/psychotherapy to cope with these issues more rationally. And hence counseling/psychotherapy has become linked with positive scientific outcomes that can and has been effective for some major populations.
The efficacy of counseling/psychotherapy has been a controversial issue for many years. Some of this controversy started back in 1952 with the famous article by H. J. Eysenck entitled “The Effects of Psychotherapy: An Evaluation,” which was very critical to the extent that psychotherapy is ineffective on the whole. The overall failure of psychotherapy has led researchers in many directions to uncover the essential factors in producing successful outcomes of counseling/psychotherapy. There are many variables shown to affect outcome such as client, therapist, situational, population, school of therapy, and many other variables.
“There is, however, one factor which has gathered overwhelming support, through hundreds of studies, as the key ingredient of a successful therapist (Successful in the strict sense of one whose clients improve through treatment.) It is the personality make-up of the therapist' (Rothstein, 1998, p.2). According to Rothstein there are ten key traits that makeup the successful therapist. The ten traits are 1) empathy, 2) genuineness, 3) respect or positive regard, 4) warmth, 5) confrontiveness, 6) concreteness, 7) potency, 8) immediacy, 9) self-disclosure, and 10) self-actualization. Rothstein claims that only a small percentage of therapists are functioning in a positive way when measured on the core conditions which brings up the question of how and why many profession therapists have come into practice without the ability to help people, and how our training & licensing are set up. Rothstein lists four causative factors in producing low functioning counselors. These are: 1) Selection of students - Is usually based on academic performance and intellectual abilities that correlate inversely with helping ability. 2) Selection of “Trainers” - The research shows that in all cases investigated with a low-functioning trainer, the highest functioning students are likely to drop out or be terminated. 3) Content and Focus on Programs - Most programs prepare students to be scientist-practitioners. 4) The modality of training is way off base - Graduate programs focus on modalities such as lecture, reading and writing which show little, if any, correlation with improved counseling ability except when combined with experiential modalities, such as practica, internships, training triads, etc.
My spiritual/transpersonal approach will focus on five particular key character traits of the counselor that will aid in effective counseling. These traits will be 1) Humility, or the ability to humble oneself to people, places and things that are different then themselves. 2) Gratitude, or the ability to be thankful for this opportunity no matter what that may initially look like. 3) Compassion, or the ability to be with someone else's suffering and not have to “fix” it. 4) Acceptance, or the ability to accept oneself and others for who they are and realize that we can't change other people but only ourselves. 5) Faith, or the ability to understand the relationship and connection to all people, places, and things. I believe the utilization of these traits will aid in the overall effectiveness in spiritual counseling. I am hoping that counselors are aware of their influences on clients clients and that they really can help guide a person to areas that need improvement. I am also hoping the therapist can also distinguish and accept their own limits for like Carl Jung has stated: “One cannot help the patient to advance further than one has advanced oneself” (Jung, 1954, p. 78).
“There is a difference between religion and spirituality. Spirituality is more inclusively defined as one's place in the universe, whereas religion refers to the specific religious faith and practice resulting from a person's spirituality. Spirituality is broader and more inclusive in meaning than religion” (Pederson, 1997, p. 100). It is my opinion that spirituality/religious concerns will need to be addressed as growing concerns of the client become more apparent and in order to serve the general public more effectively in the future. Talk therapy is actually the more exotic form of counseling in a world where the vast majority depend on spiritual and religious meaning for deeper meaning to ones life. On the other hand, tolerance for religious and spiritual factors has not advanced significantly in fact “The field of counseling and psychotherapy has been slow to recognize the need to address spiritual/religious concerns” (Corey, 2001, p. 461). The need is there as spirituality being a major concern for a majority of individuals who are trying to make sense of the universe and find a purpose for living. I think the problem lays with the therapist and the lack of empathy and humility in regards to spiritual issues. “Counselors do not typically sympathize with or understand the cultural aspects of their clients' religious and spiritual context” (Pederson, 1997, p. 99).
It is my belief that spirituality can be the common ground that holds the key to our inner connectedness and the possibility to understand ourselves at a deeper level. The idea that we are all related is no myth, it is realty. I think this connection to the “Big Picture” or to where all things are connected to the spiritual web of life is not a new concept and has been known to spiritual masters for thousands of years. I have also realized how the universe speaks to us. But we don't have to listen. A flower blooms, a dolphin speaks, a baby is born, the stars glisten in the night, and still to some there is no wonder. I believe it is my responsibility as a therapist to help hold a spiritual vision for my clients and to understand that psychic, mystical or spiritual healing does have a place in therapy.
There are definitely many cultural differences that have been illustrated (Sue & Sue, 1999) throughout historical record. These differences have captured much attention from the psychological and therapeutic networks. My spiritual/transpersonal vision believes in the integration of these important differences but also seeks to draw more from the spiritual essence that we all can share. I call this spiritual essence universal life energy or love. I believe it is this sense of harmony, connectiveness, and love that humans are trying to uncover and bond with.
Existence of universal life energy is not a new concept. In fact, Eastern thought generally poses the existence of a universal energy and has been given many names such as ki in Japanese, chi in Chinese, sakti or kundalini in Sanskrit. In Western thought there is the universal life energy referred to as love. “According to this point of view, different manifestations of love are expressions of a root spiritual energy that has been processed and differentiated through the human psyche in varying ways and degrees (May, 1984). It is known in both systems of thought that energy of some kind is a fundamental prerequisite for being and the possibility that the universe runs on an energy that is at its root, totally and unconditionally loving. Unfortunately, the Western thought has not integrated mind, body, and spirit as well as Eastern thought has so there will be room for new opportunities.
There is an abundance of universal life energy or love throughout the universes. It is only a matter of tapping into this abundance, one of the simplest and most common method is perhaps remembering your own experience with this:
When we believe that we don't have enough love in us, there is a method for discovering and invoking it. Go back in your mind and recreate, almost visualize, a love that someone gave you that really moved you, perhaps in your childhood. Traditionally you are taught to think of your mother and her lifelong devotion to you, but if you find that problematic, you could think of your grandmother or grandfather, or anyone who had been deeply kind to you in your life. Remember a particular instance when they really showed you love, and you felt their love vividly (Sogyal, 1992, p. 195).
My vision to positive outcomes in spiritual guidance will utilize this universal life energy or love as the main ingredient in establishing the therapeutic relationship. Utilizing love energy along with the five character traits of humility, gratitude, acceptance, faith, and compassion will possibly provide an opportunity to connect with my client. First of all, I will consider my client to be just like me with similar needs, such as desire for happiness and to be understood. I will think my client would want to avoid suffering, loneliness, and fear of the unknown. I would help my client acknowledge feelings of helplessness and despair. The second important part of this therapy is to put myself directly in my client's place and imagine I am in their pain. Most of the time I will find that the client wants exactly what I want: to be really loved and accepted.
We are moving toward a future that is so different it is beyond imagination. Those who are not prepared for this unimaginable future will not survive. The way to develop the adaptive facilities for survival is to interact with people who think, dress, act, and feel differently (Pederson, 1997, p.59).
As we enter into this most auspicious time in history there are clear signs from people around the world are seeking to understand and cope with life on a deeper level. The mounting empirical evidence that a spiritual life correlates with improved health, happiness, creativity, and connection to our universe has literally opened the door to the 21st century and to the world within us. The possibility of understanding our interconnectedness to all people, places, and things has brought about a new awareness. This new awareness is beginning to shape the counseling/psychotherapy world by opening new opportunities where old models and techniques have failed.
For effective therapy to occur, the therapist and client must be able to send and receive both verbal and nonverbal messages accurately and appropriately. while breakdowns in communication often happen between members who share the same culture, the problem becomes exacerbated between people of different racial or ethnic backgrounds. Many mental health professionals have noted that racial or ethnic factors may act as impediments to therapy by lowering social influence (Sue & Sue, 1999, p. 58).
It is my opinion that spiritual concerns will need to be addressed as growing concerns of the client and therapist become more apparent. Greater attention should be given to the intuitive processes of both individuals and that spiritual paths can be the paths to our deepest fulfillment where personal and cosmic realities are interwoven.
I believe this present moment to be the most auspicious time for spiritual/transpersonal approaches. There are clear signs that people around the world have an inexhaustible need to understand and deal with life on a deeper level. This realization has literally opened the door to the 2151 century and to the world within us. Even though, “The field of counseling and psychotherapy has been slow to recognize the need to address spiritual/religious concerns” (Corey, 2001, p. 461) the is there as spirituality being a major concern for a majority of individuals who are trying to make sense of the universe and find a purpose for living. The addition of a spiritual dimension to standard psychotherapy/counseling may facilitate healing (Boorstein, 1997) to where trust and appreciation for the power of spiritual experiences becomes the root of a transpersonal approach.
If we all have one thing in common, I would hope this would be our spirituality. It is my belief that spirituality can be the common ground that holds the key to our inner connectedness and to the possibility of understanding ourselves at a deeper level. I believe it is my responsibility to help hold a spiritual vision for my clients and to understand that psychic, mystical, and spiritual healing does have a place in therapy.
The practice of spiritual guidance has deep meaning and responsibility to me. I find it my responsibility to utilize different approaches with my client. I can remember having a client that was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia that enjoyed reading the Bible. I thought this would be a good place to start and so we discussed the Bible for many sessions and I would also send him home with other spiritual literature to read. He eventually came to the point where he could talk openly and honestly about personal spiritual experiences that were of the utmost importance to him but never felt he could talk about it so openly. As he practiced more forgiveness, humility, and gratitude he seemed to experience less paranoia. Although his underlying psychosis still remained, he seemed less depressed. I looked at this as an opening of the heart and “If we remember that our hearts are divine temples, our sense of self and our whole psychology is transformed. From this perspective, we are not worldly creatures seeking the spiritual; we are spiritual beings seeking to discover our own true nature” (Frager, 1999, p. 41).
I have heard it said that the job of a counselor/psychotherapist is comparable to that of an auto mechanic to where they both strive to reach certain standards of operation. I think this analogy makes a good point of how most counselors/psychotherapists strive to implement cold scientific theories to warm hearted spiritual beings. I am hoping that spiritual guides are aware of their influence on clients and that they really can help guide a person to their basic essence.
My vision of the future for spiritual/transpersonal guidance will be based upon love. The connection of the spiritual guide to client is not so much based upon the techniques utilized but rather the quality of love that is manifested. I believe that we are not just human beings having an earthly experience, we are spiritual beings having a universal existence.
Boorstein, S. (1997). Clinical studies in transpersonal psychotherapy.
New York: State University of New York Press.
Corey, G. (2001). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy.
Frager, R. (1999). Heart, self, and soul.
Wheaton, Il: Quest Books.
Jung, C. G. (1954). The practice of psychotherapy.
New York: Bollingen Foundation.
Maslow, A. H. (1968). Toward a psychology of being.
New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
May, G. (1982). Will and spirit.
San Francisco: Harper & Row.
Pederson, P. B. (1997). Culture-centered counseling interventions.
Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Rothstein, S. M. (1998). Shock Wave.
Carlsbad: Continental Publications.
Sogyal, (1992). The Tibetan book of living and dying.
New York: Harper Collins.
Sue, D W. & Sue, D. (1999). Counseling the culturally different, theory and practice.
New York: John Wiley and Son, Inc. ~~
This essay comes out of a grateful response to the two wonderful individuals named Sue and Bill, both diagnosed with psychotic disorders of paranoid schizophrenia. I had the pleasure of serving them as a mental health intern/counselor for a period of about six months in my county of residence. The experience of counseling these two individuals proved to be a valuable determinant in my abilities as a transpersonal healer and helped me realize the power of love as a guiding force through the therapeutic process.
At the time of our initial consultations I had no clinical experience with schizophrenia but jumped on the opportunity when mentioned by my supervisor. Personally, I felt qualified because of my upbringing with a schizophrenic brother and my therapeutic involvement with individuals in 12-step programs, drug rehab facilities, Headstart program, and other mental health related organizations. I also had a passion to work with what may be considered severely handicapped individuals, so you might say I seized the moment. After the interviews with my new clients I had the intuitive hunch to treat them with transpersonal psychotherapy along with their prescribed medications. Both liked this new approach and trusted my choice of therapy even though they had no idea what it was besides the fact of it being spiritual. But being spiritual was enough for them because it “fit” into their belief system.
To make a long story short, they both made great progress during the next six months and I felt ecstatic about being a part of this wonderful transition. In the next few pages I would like to describe my therapeutic process with you and how it can be considered a valuable component in a treatment plan.
Being an old “hippie” that I am, I believe in a universal life energy called love. The utilization of this energy is the most effective part of my treatment plan and works with any disorder. I believe it is this sense of harmony, connectiveness, and love that humans are trying to uncover and bond with. Existence of universal life energy is not a new concept. In fact, Eastern thought generally poses the existence of a universal energy and this has been given many names such as ki in Japanese, chi in Chinese, sakti or kundalini in Sanskrit, and love in the West. “According to this point of view, different manifestations of love are expressions of a rot spiritual energy that has been processed and differentiated through the human psyche in varying ways and degrees (May, 1984). It is known in both systems of thought that energy of some kind is a fundamental prerequisite for being and the possibility that universe runs on an energy that is at its root, totally and unconditionally loving.
“The essence of a therapeutic orientation is not so much its methods or techniques but rather the nature of its energy and the quality of love that is manifested” (Hutton, 1988). I believe we are not only human beings having an earthly experience, we are spiritual beings having a universal existence. As this statement came to me during a recent meditation, I became aware of the significance of how everything and everybody are somehow connected. This spiritual connection could be viewed as a connection to others that evolves a deep inner knowing of love and meaning in the universes. Utilizing this transpersonal/spiritual approach to therapy brought about effective outcomes with Sue and Bill.
Through what I believe to be most auspicious timing for transpersonal/spiritual approaches to where there are clear signs that people around the world have an inexhaustible need to understand and deal with life on a deeper level has literally opened the door to the 2151 century and to the world within us. Even though, “The field of counseling and psychotherapy has been slow to recognize the need to address spiritual/religious concerns” (Corey~61) the need is there as spirituality being a major concern for a majority of individuals who are trying to make sense of the universe and find a purpose for living, like my two new clients Sue and Bill.
Psychotherapy is a common component of treatment for people diagnosed with Schizophrenia and an effective approach is to be flexible and minimize the stress. Some of the successful treatment plans suggest an interpersonal, cognitive, or cognitive- behavioral approach for the affective symptoms and a supportive and behavioral approach for the psychotic symptoms (Seligman). Less common but gaining support in the treatment of psychosis is the transpersonal approach. The addition of a spiritual dimension to standard psychotherapy may facilitate healing (Boorstein) to where trust and appreciation for the power of spiritual experiences becomes the root of a transpersonal approach.
“Transpersonal therapy involves delving into the contents of a patient's hallucinations and delusions to find personal insights and archetypal patterns that play an important role in the patient's existence and personal mythology” (Scotton, p. 272). Transpersonal therapy can actually guide a person to realize the transformative aspects of their psychotic episodes to where the experience becomes a breakthrough rather than a breakdown into a new vocation and passion for life. With my two new clients Sue and Bill this was an opportunity to do just that.
If we all have one thing in common, I would hope this would be our spirituality. It is my belief that spirituality can be the common ground that holds the key to our inner connectedness and the possibility to understand ourselves at a deeper level. I believe it is my responsibility to help hold a spiritual vision for my clients and to understand that psychic, mystical or spiritual healing does have a place in therapy. After relaying some of these important elements to my clients the work began. Both of my clients were Christians and at one time of there life enjoyed reading the Bible. I thought this would be a good place to start. For the first two months we discussed portions of the Bible and I also gave them other spiritual literature to take home and read. Sue and Bill eventually came to the point where they could take openly and honestly about their personal spiritual experiences that were of the utmost importance to them but never felt they could talk about it so openly. As they both practiced more forgiveness, humility, and gratitude they seemed to experience less paranoia. Although their underlying psychosis still remained, they seemed less depressed.
As the months went by I felt it my responsibility to utilize different transpersonal techniques to the treatment plan and carefully introduced a creative expression element to their counseling session. Sometimes this would entail a simple drawing of what was on their mind. Sometimes I would ask them to role-play or just act goofy. Other times we would work on creating an essay or a small building project. Whatever the task I would help guide them through a creative process that was linked with their spirituality.
As I have attempted to weave a common thread through the personal lives of three individuals there seemed to be an effective outcome. I believe this effective outcome was achieved through the utilization of some key character traits of humility, gratitude, faith, compassion, and acceptance. These traits were utilized to tap into the creative/spiritual process. With further research regarding these traits, I hope to deliver a more accurate message in the future.
Boorstein, S. (1997). Clinical studies in transpersonal psychotherapy.
New York: State University of New York Press.
Corey, G. (2001). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy.
Hutton, M. S. (1988). How transpersonal therapists view themselves and their work.
Association for Transpersonal Psychology Newsletter, Fall, 7.
May, G. (1982). Will and Spirit.
San Francisco: Harper and Row.
Scotton, B. W., Chinen, A. B., Battista, 1. R. (1996).
Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology. New York: Basic Books.
Seligman, L. (1998). Selecting effective treatments.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.